North American Birds

VOLUME 70 NO1 2017

A Quarterly Journal of Ornithological Record Published by the American Birding Association. The mission of the journal is to provide a complete overview of the changing panorama of our continent’s birdlife.

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Page 12 of 139

Fig. 7. If the throat color had not been not obvious, it would be easy to see how the Québec Amethyst-throated Hummingbird could have been mistaken for its close relative, the Blue-throated Hummingbird. The two share a similar head pattern, with dark auriculars framed by paler post-ocular and malar stripes—a pattern particularly striking in this image. Photo by © Annie Lavoie. V O L U M E 7 0 ( 2 0 1 7 ) • N U M B E R 1 11 A M E T H Y S T - T H R O AT E D H U M M I N G B I R D I N Q U É B E C tropical birds using stable isotopes. Biotropi- ca 40(3) 269–272. Howell, S. N. G., and S. Webb. (1995). A Guide to the Birds of Mexico and Northern Central Ameri- ca. Oxford University Press, New York. Ornelas, J. F., C. González, and J. Uribe (2002) Complex vocalizations and aerial displays of the Amethyst-throated Hummingbird (Lamp- ornis amethystinus). Auk 119: 1141–1149. Powell, G. V. and R. Bjork. (1995). Implications of intratropical migration on reserve de- sign: a case study using Pharomachrus mo- cinno . Conservation Biology 9(2) 354–362. Ridgway, R. 1911. The birds of North and Middle America. Bulletin of the U. S. National Museum 50(5): 1–859. Stiles, F. G. and A. F. Skutch (1989). A Guide to the Birds of Costa Rica. Cornell University Press, Ithaca. Winker, K., P. Escalante, J. H. Rappole, M. A. Ra- mos, R. J. Oehlenschlager, R. J., and D. W. War- ner. 1997. Periodic migration and lowland for- est refugia in a "sedentary" Neotropical bird, Wetmore's Bush-Tanager. Conservation Biol- ogy 11(3) 692–697. Williamson, S. 2001. A Field Guide to Humming- birds of North America. Houghton Mifflin Har- court, Boston. n manuscript for their patience with English- as-a-second-language writers. Literature Cited Lara, C. 2006. Temporal dynamics of flower use by hummingbirds in a highland temperate forest in Mexico. Ecoscience 13(1): 23–29. Clements, J. F., T. S. Schulenberg, M. J. Iliff, D. Roberson, T. A. Fredericks, B. L. Sullivan, and C. L. Wood. 2016. The eBird/Clements Check- list of Birds of the World, v. 2016 ( clecklist-Clements). Cornell Lab of Ornithol- ogy, Ithaca. Cortés-Rodriguez, N., B. E. Hernandez-Banos, A. G. Navaro-Sigüenza, A. Townsend Peterson, and J. Garcia-Moreno. 2008. Phylogeography and population genetics of the Amethyst- throated Hummingbird (Lampornis amethys- tinus). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 48: 1–11. Edmunds, R., M. C. Arizmendi, C. Rodríguez- Flores , and C. Soberanes-González. 2011. Amethyst-throated Hummingbird (Lampornis amethystinus), in: T. S. Schulenberg, ed., Neo- tropical Birds Online. ( ATHU). Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca. Fraser, K. C., K. T. Kyser, and L. M. Ratcliffe. 2008. Detecting altitudinal migration events in neo- collections, to verify whether there were any Amethyst-throated Hummingbirds in captiv - ity in the world. Out of the approximately 50 species of hummingbirds known to be kept or to have been kept in aviary facilities, the Amethyst-throated Hummingbird was not part of the list, neither present nor past. Spe - cifically in Québec, the last zoo that is known to have owned hummingbirds in captivity was Montreal Biodome in 2014 with two species: Rufous-breasted Hermit (Glaucis hirsutus) and White-necked Jacobin (Florisuga mellivora), both originating from Trinidad and Tobago. According to zookeeper Jean-Philippe Gagnon and former exotic aviary owner Stéphane De - shaies, hummingbirds are very difficult to keep in captivity. They need large installa - tions which are costly and very unlikely be kept secret to the aviary owners' community, especially in Québec's distinct closed-vase francophone-hobbyist circles. Perhaps not unrelated to this tendency for the Québécois to do their own thing, with the exception of Florida, the NAB regional editors for Québec are among the few to have consistently kept track of all exotic species in their seasonal summaries. This has perhaps conveyed a false sentiment that private aviaries are more com - mon in Québec than elsewhere in the NAB area. Lavish escapees such as Northern Car - mine Bee-eater (Merops nubicus), Violet Tu- raco (Musophaga violacea), and the southern, nonmigratory group of Streak-backed Oriole (Icterus pustulatus [sclateri]) have all been re - ported in these pages. Notably, no nectivorous exotics have been reported on to this day. Fi - nally, as shown in the pictures, the Saguenay hummingbird exhibits no sign of previous captivity or restraining, having completely in - tact soft parts and well-preened plumage with no signs of unnatural wear. Acknowledgements The authors wish to sincerely thank Annie Lavoie and Martin Bélanger, who gener- ously and on short notice allowed observers to access their property in order to docu - ment and appreciate the ephemeral visit of the Amethyst-throated Hummingbird. We would also like to thank Michel Gosselin for pulling the trigger on the ID and for his thoughts and comments. Answers from Sté- phane Deshaies and Jean-Philippe Gagnon on captive taxa were most appreciated, as were comments from various knowledge- able people in private discussions and public outreach stemming from the ABA rare bird alert group ( Finally, warm praise to the revisers of this

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