North American Birds

VOLUME 69 NO3 2016

A Quarterly Journal of Ornithological Record Published by the American Birding Association. The mission of the journal is to provide a complete overview of the changing panorama of our continent’s birdlife.

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Page 15 of 211

326 N O R T H A M E R I C A N B I R D S P E L A G I C B I R D S F R O M C R U I S E S H I P S A LO N G T H E PA C I F I C C O A S T volved Hawaiian/Galapagos Petrels, but the probability is that most or all were Hawaiian Petrels. Most Hawaiian Petrels have been found between late April and early June (Figures 13a/b) and again between mid-July and early September, although the same spring period coincides with peak birder use of cruise ships. Records begin in late March. The earliest ar - rival was 1 seen 36 km southwest of Point Arena Mendocino, CA (38.73° N, 124.06° W) 20 Mar 2015. High single-day and single- cruise counts in spring included 9 birds off California 9 May 2013, 5 birds between Santa Barbara and Del Norte, CA 7-8 May 2014, 8 off Humboldt 22 May 2014, 5 off Humboldt and Del Norte 24 May 2014, 8 birds between San Luis Obispo, CA and Curry (where 3 seen), OR 28-29 Apr 2015, a record 14 birds be - tween San Luis Obispo and Humboldt 6-7 May 2015, and total of 12 between Curry (where 4 seen) and Humboldt 22 May 2014. Two birds were seen together on several occasions. A single bird photographed 59 km off Cape Blanco, Curry 3 May 2013 was accepted as Oregon's first definite Hawaiian Petrel iden - tified to species; almost 15 records have ac- crued there through 2016. Several records off California and southern Oregon spanned the mid-June through early July period as well: 1 bird 111 km off Hum - boldt 10 Jul 2013 and total of 3 birds 142-162 km off Curry 7 Jul 2014. In late summer, high counts included a to - tal of 11 between Curry and Mendocino 18 Jul 2013 and 6 off Curry and Coos 12 Jul 2015. Farther north off Oregon (north of central Coos), singles were 235 km off Depoe Bay Lin - coln (45.12° N, 127.04° W) 25 May 2014 and 85 km off Yachats, Lincoln (44.23° N, 125.18° W) 16 Jul 2014; 2 birds were 185-186 km shore, some from beyond the EEZ (Kenyon et al. 2009, M. Force in litt.). One bird was seen from a cruise ship 120 km south-southwest of the southern end of Haida Gwaii (50.96° N, 131.72° W) 10 May 2011. The only spring records from cruise ships off California, Or - egon, and Washington were of 2 birds 56 km off northern Del Norte, CA 8 May 2009, 2 off Grays Harbor, WA 1 May 2010, and 1 bird 64 km off Curry, OR 3 May 2013. Mottled Petrels are probably most apt to be seen in cruise-ship waters during November and December, when such cruises are rare. Three out of three such trips between early Nov and mid-Dec 2015 found a total of 13 Mottled Petrels off southern Washington and northern and central Oregon: 1 was 88 km off Depoe Bay, Lincoln, OR 10 Nov; 1 was 98 km off Barview/Garibaldi, Tillamook, OR; 6 were off Pacific and Grays Harbor, WA 2 Dec (Figure 12); and 5 were between 85 km off Florence, Lane and 79 km off Winchester Bay, Douglas, OR 16 Dec. HAWAIIAN and HAWAIIAN / GALAPAGOS PETRELS (Pterodroma sandwichensis & P. sandwichensis/phaeopygia) Uncommon visitor well offshore in Califor - nia, uncommon to rare off southern Oregon (Curry and Coos), very rare north to waters of northern Oregon, Washington, and southern British Columbia. First recorded from a cruise ship in 2010 when 1 was seen off Sonoma, CA on 30 Apr. This species has become some - what reliable since then (Table 3), particularly when there are moderate to strong winds. Sat - ellite tracking has shown that Hawaiian Pe- trels make regular foraging forays in a clock- wise oval from Hawaii to waters far off the Pacific Northwest coast, as far as 51° N in the central North Pacific—well west of British Columbia—at least August–September (see North American Birds 63: 144), and then occur closer to the coast as they move southward off southern Oregon and es - pecially California, before re- turning westward to Hawaii. In contrast, there has yet to be evidence that Galapagos Petrel occurs in these waters. Given that excellent photographs are needed to separate this species pair in the field, only some of the reports from cruise ships were of verified Hawaiians. Many of them actually in - MOTTLED PETREL (Pterodroma inexpectata) Very rare or casual visitor in spring to the waters traversed by cruise ships. Probably regular in late winter and early spring and again in late fall and early winter even farther offshore and farther north, i.e., off British Columbia and northern Washington, where a moderate number of records from these seasons come from research cruises well off - Figure 10. Peak numbers of Murphy's Petrels are found off the North American West Coast during April and May. This individual was 132 km west of Point St. George, Del Norte County, California on 13 May 2015. Small numbers have been seen from cruise ships also during March and as late as mid-July. Photograph by Ilya Povalyaev. Figure 11. Far fewer Murphy's Petrels have been seen from cruise ships off northern Washington and British Columbia than off California and Oregon. This may simply be the result of more limited daylight coverage of the deeper waters off the former region compared to off the latter, or perhaps the species is truly less numerous or occurs mostly even farther offshore (mostly beyond the EEZ) as one travels north. This Murphy's Petrel was photographed 257 km southwest of Tofino, British Columbia, 25 May 2014. Photograph by Bruce Rideout. Table 3. Numbers of Hawaiian and Hawaiian/Galapagos Petrels seen from cruise ships, by month and year, 2010-2016. The species was unrecorded prior to 2010. Observer coverage was heavily skewed to April and May, with a secondary peak during September. –––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– March April May June July Aug Sept –––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– 2010 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 –––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– 2011 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 –––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– 2012 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 –––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– 2013 0 3 12 0 14 2 0 –––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– 2014 0 3 28 0 6 0 1 –––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– 2015 1 8 19 0 0 4 1 –––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– 2016 0 1 5 0 0 0 0 ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––

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