North American Birds

VOLUME 69 NO3 2016

A Quarterly Journal of Ornithological Record Published by the American Birding Association. The mission of the journal is to provide a complete overview of the changing panorama of our continent’s birdlife.

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321 V O L U M E 6 9 ( 2 0 1 6 ) • N U M B E R S 3 / 4 P E L A G I C B I R D S F R O M C R U I S E S H I P S A LO N G T H E PA C I F I C C O A S T edge, 55-80 km offshore—and migrants were regular some 100+ km "offshore" between Vancouver Island and Haida Gwaii (formerly Queen Charlotte Islands), BC. In summer, a presumed non-breeder was ca. 10 km at sea off Coronation Island in southeastern Alaska waters 12 Jul 2013. Fall migrants also occurred regularly well offshore, with a slightly late flock of 14 birds 89 km off Lincoln, OR 2 Dec 2015. This species is known to make regular non-stop migratory flights between south - western Alaska and the West Coast winter- ing grounds, including areas south to Baja California. Thus, encountering flocks well offshore in fall is to be expected. Spring mi - gration also includes areas well offshore, al- though it is more apt to utilize several inter- mediate stops (Lewis et al. 2013). CACKLING GOOSE (Branta hutchinsii) Large flocks of northbound Cackling Geese may be observed up to 5-8 km off the north - ern Washington coast and off Vancouver the following waterfowl species are known to be regular migrants over the offshore north - eastern Pacific Ocean. They were seen from cruise ships during spring and/or fall migra - tion as far offshore as the shelf edge or be- yond, approximately 55-90+ km offshore. Additional information is provided as follows: GREATER WHITE-FRONTED GOOSE (Anser albifrons) One bird was 60 km off southern Curry, OR 30 Apr 2014. A flock of 4 was ca. 93 km off Tillamook, OR 20 Sep 2016. BRANT (Branta bernicla) Common spring migrant within 15 km of shore. Briggs et al. (1987) noted this species in flocks as large as 100 birds up to 90 km offshore during March–April and October– November, and M. P. Force (in litt.) has ob - served similar flocks from research vessels as far as 375 km off northern California. Small to medium-sized migrating flocks have been seen from cruise ships as far out as the shelf In the Species Accounts that follow, terms designating abundance have been kept flex - ible so that they more accurately convey rela- tive abundance by species or season: • Common: Always or almost always encountered daily, usually in moderate to large numbers. • Fairly common : Usually encountered daily, generally not in large numbers. • Uncommon : Occurs in small numbers and may be missed on a substantial num - ber of days. • Rare: Occurs (or probably occurs) an - nually in very small numbers. • Very rare: Averages about one record annually, but not necessarily recorded every year. • Casual: One to a few records, but thought to be a likely candidate to occur again within a few years. Waterfowl, Loons, Grebes –––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– Individuals, pairs, and small flocks of most of

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