North American Birds

VOLUME 69 NO2 2016

A Quarterly Journal of Ornithological Record Published by the American Birding Association. The mission of the journal is to provide a complete overview of the changing panorama of our continent’s birdlife.

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Figure 3. One of the Collared Pratincoles appeared to be in fresher plumage, with neater stippling in the upper breast and neck and finer markings in the mantle. In this bird, the brownish tone in the primaries is evident; in Oriental Pratincole, the folded primaries at this age should appear blackish, though this distinction is possibly limited to adults (Driessens and Svensson 2005). Photograph by Anthony Levesque. Figure 4. On of the Collared Pratincoles appeared slightly more worn than the other, with fewer and less crisp markings in the mantle and much less defined marking in the upper breast (see also Figure 5). This image shows nicely the dark gray streaks bordering the pale throat and malar, which will become the striking black-and-white bib border in the adult. Photograph by Anthony Levesque. Fig. 3 Fig. 4 180 N O R T H A M E R I C A N B I R D S C O L L A R E D P R AT I N C O L E S AT G U A D E LO U P E In flight, the birds appeared identical, with remiges and primary coverts notably darker gray than the grayish brown upperparts; the outermost primary showed a white shaft, and the trailing edge of the wing (secondaries and inner primaries, p1-p7) showed broad pale edges (Figures 2, 7-11). The birds' underwing coverts were difficult to study but were even - tually seen well and photographed, and were clearly a rich rufous or chestnut (Figure 7)— ruling out Black-winged Pratincole (G. nordma - nni), which has blackish underwing coverts in all plumages, and leaving Collared Pratincole (G. pratincola) and Oriental Pratincole (G. mal - divarum) for consideration. The birds remained at the reservoir until the late afternoon of 2 October, but they were not seen subsequently, despite intensive searches on 3 October. Identification The extensive pale tips of the secondaries and inner primaries are the most reliable feature for distinguishing Collared and Oriental Pratin - coles in juvenal plumage. Fresh juvenile Ori- entals can show a very, very thin buff trailing edge in the wing (Beaman and Madge 1998, Driessens and Svensson 2005) but nothing ap - proaching the appearance of the Guadeloupe individuals. In adult Collared Pratincole, the tips of the primaries fall even with the tips of the longest rectrices, unlike in adult Orien - tal Pratincole, in which the primary tips fall well beyond the tip of the tail (Driessens and Svensson 2005, Brazil 2009). Juvenile Col - lared Pratincoles, however, have shorter tails than adults, making this feature unreliable for juveniles and molting birds (Porter and Aspi - nall 2010); in the Guadeloupe individuals, the tip of the tail fell short of the primary tips by several mm (Figures 6, 12). Both Guadeloupe individuals were mostly white below; juvenile Oriental Pratincoles normally look duskier be - low, with extensive dark orange-buff tones in the lower breast, not present in juvenile Col - lared (Beaman and Madge 1998, Driessens and Svensson 2005). Other features that might dis - tinguish Collared from Oriental—such as tones of upperparts, underparts, extent of dark lores, extent of bib border, presence of gape line, and numerous "soft" features (Mullarney et al. 1999, Driessens and Svensson 2005)—appear to be useful only for identifying adults of these species. Photograph captions include more de - tailed consideration of identification criteria. The migratory nominate subspecies of Col- lared Pratincole has a vast breeding range, spanning from southern Europe to Pakistan, Uzbekistan, and eastern Kazakhstan. Birds from these northern parts of breeding range winter

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