North American Birds

VOLUME 69 NO2 2016

A Quarterly Journal of Ornithological Record Published by the American Birding Association. The mission of the journal is to provide a complete overview of the changing panorama of our continent’s birdlife.

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Page 17 of 139

192 N O R T H A M E R I C A N B I R D S R U F O U S - N E C K E D W O O D - R A I L I N N E W M E X I C O by two months. On 21 April 2016, Jan Axel Cubilla (2016) and colleagues found at least seven birds at 1100-1300 m elevation on Cerro Hoya, in the Azuero Peninsula. Other than this record, and the specimen, all re- cords are coastal and from the December– March period (G. R. Angehr, in litt.). Costa Rica In summarizing the birdlife of Costa Rica, Slud (1964) commented that no new infor- mation on Rufous-necked Wood-Rail had been forthcoming in half a century; he never encountered the species and was aware of only two old specimens, one from the Pa- cific lowlands on the Gulf of Nicoya at Lep- anto (16 March 1909) and an undated one apparently from Carrillo, inland and at the transition between the tropical and subtropi- cal zones on the northern (Caribbean) slope of the Cordillera Central. Stiles and Skutch (1989) note that the species is little known and place it at two sites around the Gulf of Nicoya but also state it had been recorded from swamp forests at Bijagua, in Caribbean slope foothills of the Cordillera de Guana- caste. More recently, two were reported 8 January 2007 from the Río Frio north of Caño Negro Wildlife Refuge (Jones and Ko- mar 2007), also an inland site on the Carib- bean side of the Cordillera de Guanacaste. Within the past decade, increasing coverage of the Gulf of Nicoya area has produced nu- merous reports along the entire coastline of the Gulf and around the Nicoya Peninsula itself, spanning 25 August–5 May; reports at - tributed to adjacent Carara National Park (7 May–27 July) probably refer to coastal habi- tat just outside the park at or near Tarcoles (P. O'Donnell, in litt.). To the northeast of the Gulf, in the highlands of the Cordillera de Tilarán around the Monteverde Cloud For- est Reserve and nearby areas (Pacific slope), reports of Rufous-necked Wood-Rail span at least 29 May–30 June, with one report of a nesting pair that produced two young on the Ecological Farm, Cerro Plano, videotaped by the Rodríguez family, who own the farm (Garrigues 2000, 2004). Nicaragua T. R. Howell never encountered the species in Nicaragua and was aware of only two old records for the country, both from decidu- ous forests on the slopes of volcanic peaks on the Pacific side: a male with testes slightly enlarged at 1070 m on Volcan Mombacho 4 May 1919 and a female with ovary greatly enlarged at 640 m on Volcan San Cristobal Isla Los Roques, 128 km north of the coast), occurs locally along the mainland coast, and very locally inland (to at least 135 km from the coast), mainly below 500 m but with specimen records up to 1800 m, the highest yet recorded for the species. It is mapped as breeding in several coastal and inland areas but also as collected at sites well away from known breeding areas (Hilty 2003); whether those represent vagrants, birds moving sea- sonally, or undiscovered populations is un- known (S. L. Hilty, in litt.). Trinidad The species is resident on the large island of Trinidad, as well as on the Bocas Islands west of Trinidad in the strait between Trini- dad and Venezuela, and on Saut d'Eau Island off Trinidad's north coast; it occurs in man- groves on Trinidad but in deciduous forest on the offshore islands (ffrench 1991). Single nests were found on 23 July and 6 October in Trinidad's Caroni Swamp region (years not indicated; Belcher and Smooker 1935), and these seem to be the only nests described for the species anywhere, as evidenced by repeated reference to them—and to no oth- ers—throughout the literature (e.g., Wet- more 1965, Ripley 1977, Hilty and Brown 1986, Stiles and Skutch 1989, Howell and Webb 1995, Taylor 1996, Hilty 2003). The Guianas East of Venezuela and Trinidad, Rufous- necked Wood-Rail occurs in mangrove and lowland forest in Guyana (Snyder 1966, Braun et al. 2007) and Suriname (Haver- schmidt 1968). Although many online re- sources include adjacent French Guiana in the species' range (e.g., BirdLife Interna- tional 2012, Boyer 2014), sight records are now considered unreliable by the Comité d'Homologation de Guyane, and the species has been removed from the checklist for that department of France (Ingels et al. 2011). Panama Rufous-necked Wood-Rail occurs very local - ly in mangrove swamps on both the Pacific and Caribbean coasts of Panama (Wetmore 1965), where seemingly rare but perhaps overlooked (Ridgely and Gwynne 1989). An- gehr et al. (2008) listed additional records, noted that all records known to them were in the period late December–March, and won- dered if the species was present in Panama only seasonally. Williams located a 25 Octo- ber 1938 specimen (Field Museum Natural History 426189), which expands that season able distances. What follows is a brief sum- mary of status and distribution by country. Colombia Rufous-necked Wood-Rail has a long history in Colombia (the species was described in 1863 from a Barranquilla specimen) but the species is still poorly known there (Hilty and Brown 1986, S. L. Hilty, in litt.). The species is found primarily in mangroves along the Pacific coast, but also occurs in the Carib- bean region from Cartagena northeastward, including in wooded foothill forests at 600- 1200 m in the Santa Marta Mountains (Hilty and Brown 1986). More recently, it has been found in montane areas on the Pacific slope of Colombia (S. L. Hilty, in litt.), but the overall extent of inland occurrences in the country is unknown. Ecuador The species is regarded as a rare to fairly com- mon resident in coastal mangroves along the country's Pacific coast, although the distri- bution there is not continuous (Ridgely and Greenfield 2001). It also ranges locally up into deciduous forest in foothills and moun- tains in the three southwesternmost states; perhaps first reported in such habitats (up to 600 m) by Chapman (1926), it has recently been found up to 1400 m near Sozoranga in the Andes (Best et al. 1993, Ridgely and Greenfield 2001), a locale about 120 km in - land from the coast. While found year-round in coastal mangroves, to date it is known from upland areas only during the Decem- ber–April period (R. S. Ridgely, in litt.). Peru Historically unknown from Peru, Rufous- necked Wood-Rail was first found there in the mid-1980s, when adults with chicks were seen on three occasions at elevations above 600 m in dry tropical forests in the Tumbres region during the period 26 Feb- ruary–3 March 1986, and soon thereafter it was found to be fairly common in coastal mangroves in July 1988 (Parker at al. 1995). It is now understood to occur in northwest - ern Peru primarily in mangroves but also in evergreen forest up to 900 m (Schulenberg et al. 2007). Venezuela Hilty (2003) notes that Rufous-necked Wood-Rail has been collected at numerous localities across northern Venezuela but that it remains poorly known; it is a fairly com- mon resident on offshore islands (including

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