North American Birds

VOLUME 69 No1 2016

A Quarterly Journal of Ornithological Record Published by the American Birding Association. The mission of the journal is to provide a complete overview of the changing panorama of our continent’s birdlife.

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34 N O R T H A M E R I C A N B I R D S T H E M E N D O C I N O S H R I K E mir Dinets, Curtis Marantz, Joe Morlan, Paul Lehman, and Don Roberson, and for expert re - views we thank Alan Dean, Alexey P. Kryukov, Evgeniy N. Panov, Brian Small, Lars Svens - son, and Yoshiki Watabe. We especially thank Shane Feirer for preparing Figures 4 and 17. This is Contribution Number 508 of The Insti - tute for Bird Populations. Literature cited Abbott, S., S. N. G. Howell, and P. Pyle. 2001. First North American record of Greater Sandplover. North American Birds 55: 252- 257. Andrusenko, N. N., and E. N. Panov. 1993. Hybridization between Red-backed Shrike (Lanius collurio) and Turkestan Shrike (La - nius phoenicuroides) in northern Kazakh- stan. [English summary]. Sbornik trudov Zoologicheskogo Muzeya 30: 204-208. Babbington, J. 2013. Hybrid Red-backed Shrike at Hidd - bird record by Jehad Alam - madi. Birds of Saudi Arabia. Retrieved online: http://www.birdsofsaudiarabia. com/2013/11/hybrid-red-backed-shrike-at- hidd.html. ----. 2014. Red-backed x Isabelline shrike hy - brid - Dharan Hills. Birds of Saudi Arabia, Retrieved online: http://www.birdsofsaudi - arabia.com/2014/04/red-backed-x-isabel- line-shrike-hybrid.html. Chylarecki, P. 1991. Red-backed Shrikes with white primary patches. British Birds 84: 69- 71. California Bird Records Committee [C.B.R.C.; R. A. Hamilton, M. A. Patten, and R. A. Er - ickson, eds.). 2007. Rare Birds of California. Western Field Ornithologists, Camarillo, California. Cramp, S., and C. M. Perrins (eds.) 1993. The Birds of the Western Palearctic. Volume 7. Ox - ford University Press, Oxford, United King- dom. Dean, A. R. 1982. Field characters of Isabel - line and Brown Shrikes. British Birds 75: 395-406. Dement'ev, G. P., and N. A. Gladkov (eds.) 1954. Birds of the Soviet Union. Volume 6. Translation (1968) of Птицы Советского Союза by the Israel Program for Scientifc Translations, Jerusalem. Smithsonian Insti - tution and the National Science Foundation, Washington, D.C. Dickinson, E. C., and L. Christidis. 2014. The Howard and Moore Complete Checklist of the Birds of the World. Fourth edition. Volume 2, Passerines. Aves Press, Eastbourne, United Kingdom. Fiebig, J. 1995. Dreijährige ornithologische Studien in Nordkorea. Nachtrag zum I. Teil and Turkestan Shrike seems most likely. We welcome further discussions on the Mendoci - no shrike, and naturally we hope that the bird returns to winter in California in the future. The bird may hold the distinction of being the only individual bird to represent two species new to North America. In any case, the intense scrutiny, interest, and accumulated series of images of the Mendocino shrike provided an opportunity to refne our understanding of these captivating and complicated Eurasian shrike taxa. Acknowledgments We thank all of those who documented the Mendocino shrike despite often challenging conditions; photographs, video recordings, and audio recordings received and/or made available for this article were taken by Patri - cia Bachetti, Tom Benson, Will Brooks, Dan Brown, Murray Brown, Allison Cebula, Peter Colasanti, Elias Elias, George Gibbs, Steve Hampton, Richard Hubacek, Lisa Hug, Joe Morlan, Jeff Petit, Barrett Pierce, Mark Rauzon, Don Roberson, Ruth Rudesill, Larry Sansone, John Sterling, Steve Stump, Monte Taylor, Glen Tepke, Dan and Shirley Wilkerson, and Gary Woods. Many of these observers and others also provided written documentation to us or to the California Bird Records Com - mittee (for which we thank Tom Benson for access), including Tim Bray, Guy McCaskie, Karen Havlena, Paul Lehman, Pablo Senyszyn, and Jerry White. We thank Steve Hampton for posting recordings of the shrike's song to xeno-canto. For use of photographs of hybrid shrikes from Asia, and/or help obtaining per - mission to use them, we thank Jahed Alamma- di, Jem Babbington, Dave Bakewell, Piyapong Chotipuntu, Alexey Kryukov, Choy Wai Mun, Shinichiro Ueno, and Yoshiki Watabe. Numer - ous birders and ornithologists from Europe, Asia, and North America provided expert in - put and discussion to us or to others on the identifcation of the Mendocino shrike; these include Andy Adcock, Alan Dean, Vladimir Dinets, Ferenc Domoki, Steve Hampton, Mar - cel Holyoak, Julian Hough, Paul Leader, Paul Lehman, Curtis Marantz, Joe Morlan, Evgeniy Panov, Tommy Pederson, Laurent Raty, Yaro - slav Red'kin, Brian Small, John Sterling, Jim Stratton, Lars Svensson, Yoshiki Watabe, and Tim Worfolk. For assistance with specimen collections, Pyle is grateful to Lydia Garetano and Paul Sweet (American Museum of Natural History), Carla Cicero (Museum of Vertebrate Zoology), Moe Flannery (California Academy of Sciences), and Josh Engle (Field Museum of Natural History). For suggestions on ear - lier drafts of the manuscript we thank Vladi- sent a much larger population source for the Mendocino shrike than the occasional hybrids produced by Red-backed and either Isabelline or Brown Shrikes from nearby areas, and such hybrids could reach North America via a 180º misoriented migration. TO SUMMARIZE: 1 • Features indicating Red-backed Shrike infuence rather than pure lucionensis Brown Shrike include: a) gray frst alternate head and crown con - trasting distinctly with reddish-brown back; b) blackish formative rectrices; c) white tips to outer formative rectrices and apparent white in bases of some rectrices; d) gray frst alternate lower back and rump feathers; and e) wing and tail morphologies matching those of Red-backed Shrike and far below those of Brown Shrike. 2 • Features unsupportive of pure Red- backed Shrike include: a) chestnut and blackish formative rectrices lacking suffcient white in bases; b) apricot-orange tones in the underparts; c) rufous-brown tinges among frst alternate nape feathers; and d) white at base of formative primaries ex - tending past primary coverts. 3 • Features suggesting Turkestan over Brown Shrike infuence include: a) white underparts with apricot-orange tones restricted to sides; b) bright cinnamon juvenile rectrices and chestnut bases to formative rectrices; c) cinnamon to pinkish-rufous formative rump and uppertail coverts contrasting with browner back; d) white at base of formative primaries ex - tending past primary coverts; e) rufous-brown frst alternate feathers in nape; and f) wing and tail morphologies far outside of ranges for Brown Shrike or presumed hybrid Red-backed x Brown Shrike hybrids. We cannot rule out an introgressed individual of three or more species from the Altai region of southern Russia, and for this and other rea - sons an alternate conclusion would leave the parental make-up of the Mendocino shrike, other than involving Red-backed Shrike, as indeterminable given current knowledge. However, given especially the wing and tail morphologies and the sizes of potential source populations, a hybrid between Red-backed

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