North American Birds

VOLUME 69 No1 2016

A Quarterly Journal of Ornithological Record Published by the American Birding Association. The mission of the journal is to provide a complete overview of the changing panorama of our continent’s birdlife.

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Figure 4. Breeding and winter ranges of shrike taxa considered for the identifcation of the Mendocino shrike, along with zones of overlap and hybridization be- tween Red-backed Shrike and other taxa. The hybridization zone between Red-backed and Turkestan Shrikes is rather extensive, whereas only occasional hybrids between Red-backed and Isabelline Shrikes and between Red-backed and Brown Shrike have been observed (see text). The two hybrid zones overlap in the Altai range of south-central Russia, an area where all four species of this assemblage occur and may introgress. Graphic by Shane Feirer, based on Figure 1 in Worfolk (2000), with added detail on the hybridization zones from Kryukov and Gureev (1997), Panov et al. (2011), and V. Dinets and A. Kryukov (pers. comm.). Figure 5. Red-backed Shrike specimen AMNH 661048, collected 7 February 1905 in Angola, Africa, showing bidirectional primary replacement during the preformative molt, likely from a node at p5 (p1-p2 and p8-p10 remain as juvenile feathers). Brown Shrike has been reported to undergo such bidirectional replacement of primaries during both preformative and prebasic molts, whereas Red- backed, Turkestan, and Isabelline Shrikes have been reported to only undergo distal replacement from p1 during these molts (Stresemann and Stresemann 1971, 1972; Cramp and Perrins 1993). Specimen ex- amination for this paper, however, indicates that all four species can demonstrate either strategy, with the majority of individuals undergoing bidirectional replacement (see text). Photograph by Peter Pyle. 10 N O R T H A M E R I C A N B I R D S T H E M E N D O C I N O S H R I K E p1 p2 p3 p4 p5 p6 p7 p8 p9 p10

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