North American Birds

VOLUME 68 NO4 2015

A Quarterly Journal of Ornithological Record Published by the American Birding Association. The mission of the journal is to provide a complete overview of the changing panorama of our continent’s birdlife.

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456 n o r t h a m e r i c a n b i r d s c o m m o n s c ot e r i n n o r t h a m e r i c a Chesser, R. T., R. C. Banks, F. K. Barker, C. Cicero, J. L. Dunn, A. W. Kratter, I. J. Lovette, P. C. Rasmussen, J. V. Remsen, Jr., J. D. Rising, D. F. Stotz, and K. Winker. 2010. Fifty-frst Supplement to the Amer- ican Ornithologists' Union Check-List of North American Birds. Auk 127: 726-744. Clarke, T. 2006. Birds of the Atlantic Islands. Christopher Helm, London. Collinson, M., D. T. Parkin, A. G. Knox, G. Sangster, and A. J. Helbig. 2006. Species limits within the genus Melanitta, the sco- ters. British Birds 99: 183-201. Cramp, S., and K. E. L. Simmons. 1977. Handbook of the Birds of Europe, the Middle East and North Africa: The Birds of the West- ern Palearctic. Volume 1. Oxford University Press, Oxford. Dean, A. R., and the Rarities Committee. Technical Report No. 773. Bordage, D., and J.-P. L. Savard. 2011. Black Scoter (Melanitta americana), in: The Birds of North America Online (A. Poole, ed.). Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, New York. Bradbury, G. 2011. The Black Scoter in Nor- thumberland. Birding World 24: 154-159. Carboneras, C., and G. M. Kirwan. 2014. Common Scoter (Melanitta nigra). In: del Hoyo, J., A. Elliott, J. Sargatal, D. A. Chris- tie, and E. de Juana (eds.). Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Lynx Edicions, Bar- celona. Chapman, F. S. 1934. Appendix II. Prelimi- nary account of the natural history feld work. In: Rymill, J. R. The Tugtilik (Lake Fjord) country, East Greenland. Geograph- ical Journal 83: 375-377. ter. Birding World 5: 58-59. Baldassarre, G. 2014. Ducks, Geese, and Swans of North America. The Johns Hopkins Uni - versity Press, Baltimore, Maryland. Behrens, K., and C. Cox. 2013. Peterson Ref- erence Guide to Seawatching: Eastern Water- birds in Flight. Houghton Miffin Harcourt, Boston, Massachusetts. Blomdahl, A., B. Breife, and N. Holström. 2007. Flight Identifcation of European Sea- birds. Christopher Helm, London. Boertmann, D. 1994. An Annotated Check - list to the Birds of Greenland. Meddelelser om Grønland, Bioscience 38: 1-63. Boertmann, D., and R. D. Nielsen. 2010. Geese, Seabirds, and Mammals in North and Northeast Greenland: Aerial surveys in summer 2009. National Environmental Re- search Institute, Aarhus University. NERI Figure 11. Flock of Common Scoters at Lake Mývatn, northeastern Iceland, 21 May 2010. In fight, the base of the neck looks especially slim in Common compared to Black (Figure 10). Alderfer (2014) indicates that the wingtips of Common appear more pointed than those of Black (cf. Figures 9, 10), and a review of numerous photographs supports that contention. Common Scoter also appears to have a somewhat narrower wing overall than Black. Photograph by Yann Kolbeinsson.

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