North American Birds

VOLUME 68 NO4 2015

A Quarterly Journal of Ornithological Record Published by the American Birding Association. The mission of the journal is to provide a complete overview of the changing panorama of our continent’s birdlife.

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455 V o l u m e 6 8 ( 2 0 1 5 ) • N u m b e r 4 commoN scoter iN North america graphic Society, Washington, D.C. ----. 1992. Immature Black Scoter. Birding World 5: 193-194. American Ornithologists' Union. 1944. Nineteenth supplement to the American Ornithologists' Union Check-list of North American Birds. Auk 61: 441-464. Astins, D. 1992. Identifcation of Black Sco- L. Armistead, Len Jellicoe, John Jennings, Bill Kieser, and Grace and Ollie Oliver for permission to reproduce their photographs of scoters. Literature cited Alderfer, J. 2014. Complete Birds of North America. Second edition. National Geo- Acknowledgments We thank Dr. Evgeny Koblik, Senior Re- searcher, Zoological Museum of Moscow State University; Dr. Evgeny Panov, Chief Scientifc Researcher, Severtsov Institute of Ecology and Evolution, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow; Dr. Anastasia Popovkina, Faculty of Biology, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Lomonosov Moscow State Univer- sity; Dr. Viktor Golovnyuk, Directorate, Na- ture Reserves of Taimyr, Norilsk; Dr. Diana Solovieva, Laboratory of Ornithology, In- stitute of Biological Problems of the North, Magadan; and Sergey Volkov, Institute of Ecology and Evolution, Moscow, for exten- sive correspondence on the status and dis- tribution of Common and Black Scoters in Russia; Drs. Golovnyuk and Popovkina were especially helpful in locating and translat- ing publications relevant to Common Scoter distribution. We also thank Hans Meltofte and David Boertmann, for correspondence on their publications and their feld work in Greenland; Nial Moores, Mark A. Brazil, and Yoshiki Watabe for correspondence about scoter records from eastern Asia; Martin Gar- ner, for discussion of fner points of Common Scoter identifcation; Louis R. Bevier, Henry T. Armistead, and P. A. Buckley, for assis- tance with distributional data and historical records of vagrant Common Scoters; Curtis Marantz, for sharing his feld notes on the vo- calization of the Crescent City scoter; Chris Wood, for careful reading of an early version of the manuscript; Thede Tobish for corre- spondence on Alaskan records; and George Figure 9. Common Scoters, Spey Bay, Moray Firth, near Buckie, Scotland, United Kingdom 7 April 2007. This image shows the slimmer neck and smaller head of male Common versus Black Scoter in fight (Figure 10). Photograph by John Jennings. Figure 10. Adult male Black Scoters, Avalon, Cape May County, New Jersey, 16 February 2014. The proportions and shape of head and neck are best compared in fying rather than resting scoters. In this image, the larger head and thicker neck of adult male Black Scoter compared to Common Scoter (Figure 9) are evident, but note that some photographs of the Crescent City scoter show a somewhat stocky-looking neck (Figure 8). Photograph by George L. Armistead.

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