North American Birds

VOLUME 68 NO2 2015

A Quarterly Journal of Ornithological Record Published by the American Birding Association. The mission of the journal is to provide a complete overview of the changing panorama of our continent’s birdlife.

Issue link: http://nab.aba.org/i/502371

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N O R T H A M E R I C A N B I R D S 188 T h e c h a n g i n g s e a s o n s : W i n T e r o f o u r d i s c o n T e n T ----. 2010. The Changing Seasons: Gulls and living rooms. North American Birds 64: 212-222. ----. 2003. The Changing Seasons: Displace- ments. North American Birds 57: 307-315. Brumfeld, J. 2014. NorthNW: Lake Erie Birding. Lake Erie waterfowl mortality, posts from 15, 16 March 2014. Online at: . Engel, J. 2014. Sitting ducks: Starving wa- terfowl and the freeze of 2014. Online at: . Farnsworth, A. 2014. Purple Gallinule va- grancy in the North Atlantic, November 2013 – February 2014. Online at: . Day, T. M., and M. J. Iliff. 2003. The spring migration: Middle Atlantic region. North American Birds 57: 328-332. Kane, L. 2014. Toronto's water birds hit hard by brutal winter weather. The Star 18 March. Online at: . Kaufman, K. 1994. The Changing Seasons. Field Notes 48: 172-175. Mlodinow, S. 1999. Common and King Ei- ders: Vagrancy Patterns in western North America. Birders Journal 8: 234-242. Morgante, M. 2003. Spring 2003: Niagara Frontier. Kingbird 53: 222-230. Rodriguez, M. 2014. Ice on Lake Michi - gan proving fatal to waterfowl. Chicago Tribune, 12 March. Online at: . Stout, B. E. 1995. Fall Migration of Red- necked Grebes in the Great Lakes Region. Master's Thesis. North Dakota State Uni - versity, Fargo, North Dakota. Stout, B. E., and G. L. Nuechterlein. 1999. Red-necked Grebe (Podiceps grisegena), in: The Birds of North America Online (A. Poole, ed.). Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, New York. Trautman, M. B., W. E. Bills, and E. L. Wick- liff. 1939. Winter losses from starvation and exposure of waterfowl and upland game birds in Ohio and other northern states. Wilson Bulletin 51: 86-104. Veit, R. R., D. A. Cutler, J. C. Burgiel, S. Kel- ling, and R. O. Paxton. 2003. The spring migration: Hudson-Delaware region. North American Birds 57: 324-327. n perhaps a rush of records, as with Shiny Cowbird, that fz- zles out to a trickle? Time will tell. We should do our duty and report all encounters with such birds, regardless of our sentiments about their place in our avifauna. To tune them out is to abdicate our work as feld ornithologists. Islands, even more than peninsula tips or desert oases, are concentrators of birds, col- lectors of waifs, and marvel - ous places to set up specula- tion about how and why birds make unexpected movements. In winter 2013-2014, many birders discovered that freez- ing lakes and rivers also be- came concentrators of birds, places to search for locally rare and uncom- mon species inland. To some questions, we have managed to produce speculation that almost reaches the level of hypothesis, as with Red-necked Grebes and Purple Gal- linules. For the ravens and Arctic Warbler, found very near one another in Bermuda's West End, we hazard guesses as we hope for patterns. The winter of 2013-2014 was hard on birds: drought in the Southwest and freez- ing cold in the Midwest, Northeast, and in much of Canada hit birds of many species. It was also hard on birders, physically and emotionally, as we watched some of our fa- vorite haunts dry up or burn, or watched beloved winter waterfowl perish slowly. We battled cabin fever, frozen pipes, impassable roads, and exorbitant heating bills, but we came through the season into spring with equilibrium mostly intact. For next winter, come what may, let's remember to look after each other as well as we do the birds. Literature cited Assel, R., K. Cronk, and D. Norton. 2003. Recent trends in Laurentian Great Lakes ice cover. Climatic Change 57: 185-204. Belke, T. 2014. The Outdoors: Duck Die- off. Online at: . Bradlee, T. S., L. L. Mowbray, and W. S. Ea- ton. 1931. A list of birds recorded from Bermuda. Proceedings of the Boston Society of Natural History 39 (8): 279-382. Brinkley, E. S. 2011. The Changing Seasons: Escapes. North American Birds 65: 216- 233. southeastward expansion (a reoccupation of historical range), the odds favor unassisted vagrancy in this case. Common Raven has been reported only once before in Bermuda, some time in the early twentieth century (Bradlee et al. 1931), which was the period during which ravens began to vanish from the mid-Atlantic coasts. Because ravens do migrate in focks, like most other large cor- vids, the appearance of two should not be too surprising. And yet, no one would have predicted their appearance there! Detection of dispersing species on islands normally brings a whoop of joy, but not all dispersing or expanding species are native. On the Dry Tortugas, another Tricolored Munia was detected this season (Figure 17), an exotic Asian species that is considered a crop pest where it is introduced, mostly in Cuba and Central America. Do we whoop? Not if we're a rice farmer in southern Flori- da, no. Will we see an invasion and coloni- zation of Florida by this fancy little bird? Or Figure 17. This Tricolored Munia, the fourth for Dry Tortugas National Park, Monroe County, turned up 18 December 2014. It was most likely a vagrant from the Cuban population ap- proximately 178 kilometers to the south. As a result of these records, the species has now been added to the Florida's ofcial avifaunal list. Photograph by Judd Patterson. Figure 16. First noted on New Year's Day 2014 (here 27 January), a Common Raven, then another, roamed Bermuda into early March, a most unexpected passerine vagrant (here at Somerset Long Bay) but a species mentioned by at least one naturalist who visited Bermuda in the early twentieth century. Photograph by Andrew Dobson.

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